FCIA Fine Chocolate Glossary


A variety propagated by asexual means to produce plants that are genetically identical (homogenous).

In cocoa, clones are produced by rooting of cuttings of a specific variety, by air-layering (marcotting) branches of a specific variety or by tissue culture (somatic embryogenesis) of a specific cocoa variety.

Próximamente versión en español

Entry added: November 28, 2022
Verified on: September 14, 2023

Authored by

Pathmanathan Umaharan, Professor of Genetics and Director, Cocoa Research Centre, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad
Academic/University Faculty


Achieving sustainable cultivation of cocoa, edited by Pathmanathan Umaharan, Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, 2018

The Relic Criollo Cacao in Belize: Genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad,” Lambert Motilal, Sue Mischke, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Lyndel Meinhardt, et al, Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization (2009); 1–10; access this article

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